[PDF / Epub] ✅ The Voyage of the Beagle By Charles Darwin – Uroturk.info
S T Charles Darwin S Journal Of ResearchesWhen The Beagle Sailed Out Of Devonport On December , Charles Darwin Was Twenty Two And Setting Off On The Voyage Of A Lifetime It Was To Last Five Years And Transform Him From An Amiable And Somewhat Aimless Young Man Into A Scientific Celebrity Even Vitally, It Was To Set In Motion The Intellectual Currents That Culminated In The Arrival Of The Origin Of Species In Victorian Drawing Rooms In His Journal, Reprinted Here In A Shortened Version, Is Vivid And Immediate, Showing Us A Naturalist Making Patient Observations, Above All In Geology As Well As A Profusion Of Natural History Detail, It Records Many Other Things That Caught Darwin S Eye, From Civil War In Argentina To The New Colonial Settlements Of Australia The Editors Have Provided An Excellent Introduction And Notes For This Penguin Classics Edition, Which Also Contains Maps And Appendices, Including An Essay On Scientific Geology And The Bible By Robert FitzRoy, Darwin S Friend And Captain Of The Beagle This book is Charles Darwin s journal of his 5 year voyage on the HMS Beagle.This journey marked the second of Captain Fitzroy and the Beagle but the first for 22 year old Charles Darwin, who had decided to become a naturalist like Alexander von Humboldt.Darwin had stopped studying medicine and refused to become a priest so the persuasion of an uncle was necessary for Charles father to allow and fund the journey in the first place But he did.They went from England to Tenerife, Cape Verde, Bahia, Rio de Janeiro, Montevideo, the Falkland Islands, Valparaiso, Lima, the Gal pagos Islands, before leaving South America to sail on to New Zealand, Sidney, Hobart Tasmania and King George s Sound in Australia, Cocos Island, Mauritius, Cape Town, then back to Bahia, Cape Verde and the Azores before returning to England.Thus, they were on quite a tight schedule which explains why Darwin s time on the Gal pagos was cut short an important detail because he made his most profound discoveries there that later resulted in his most famous work and if he had had time, maybe he would have remembered to label those finches and or keep at least one tortoise for his studies but of that in my review for The Origin of Species.While the Beagle was a relatively small ship, Darwin nevertheless filled her to the brim with specimen some sailors getting enthused and helping him, much to the dismay of a few others.He always kept a meticulous journal that served as a diary as much as a study book where he jutted down all his observations Thus, we can not only see, while reading this book now, what he discovered but also what his thought process was like We read of him being severely seasick at first, his fascination with nature, we find out that he was anti slavery sadly, not for the same pure reasons Humboldt had , what he thought of certain people he was with or encountered along the way We also see the influence of his paternal grandfather Erasmus Darwin, who had laid a few of the foundations of Darwin s theories just like Humboldt had A note on Darwin s view of indiginous people Certainly, some thoughts he wrote down are cringeworthy from today s perspective and were especially disappointing after initially learning that he was anti slavery However, for a man of his day and age not counting the unapologetic anomaly that was Humboldt he was very progressive.What I loved above all else was that we get to revel in Darwin s beautiful writing style that brings to life the sea, jungles and various animals and plants He had a way of transporting the reader to the places he had been to and I felt as if I was making the journey with him while reading this.This vivid writing style, that made this journal appear almost like a novel, really surprised and delighted me as I had not expected it In fact, I got so swept up in the narrative that I found myself sitting at the edge of my seat whenever Darwin s musings showed him getting close to the scientific truth but not quite despite me knowing that it would take him a little longer yet.A fantastic feat and I love that my edition shows sketches by Darwin himself as well as paintings of landscapes he s been to or animals now extinct that he encountered However, for all those wanting the highlights of the journey, I can also recommend the audio version narrated by Dawkins which I listened to simultaneously I know, ME endorsing an abridged version, the scandal This is not the correct edition Mine is published by Recorded Books, read by John Franklin Robbins, is just selections from the book, about 4.5 hours long, with additional material a really good biography It was short to the point It s been a long time since I last read this, but I think I liked it in audio better than in print Darwin s prose is perfect for being read out loud Everyone always talks about Darwin s theories on evolution which makes it tough to remember that he was an all around natural philosopher These selections actually contained on geology the natives than evolution Of course, he uses both to support the theory of evolution since we re all fairly familiar with it now, these selections really help show just how much knowledge he brought to bear.He was incredibly well read didn t come up with his theories in a void He constantly refers to the work of others, many of them natural philosophers who had studied other areas species He Wallace were just the first to unify this knowledge.It was really interesting to listen to his opinions on native peoples, especially on slavery which was rampant around the world at the time He mentions how children were bought for a mere button from some of the native tribes As horrifying as that was, he was horrified by how slaves were broken by their Spanish masters yet he was remote when he described how some natives would cannibalize their old women for food before they would eat their dogs If nothing else, this is an excellent reminder of how far the world has come in a mere 150 years.I can t recommend this highly enough After listening to this, I m going to have to listen to the full book some time soon. Darwin s own account of the, now almost legendary, five year voyage of the Beagle is an entertaining, illuminating and fascinating read Darwin writes with such enthusiasm that it s difficult not to be swept up in the journey and the remarkable things he witnessed and studied as he circumnavigated the globe.The only thing I found slightly disappointing was Darwin s attitude towards some of the peoples or, as he refers to them, savages he interacted with on his trek Darwin was famously anti slavery but it becomes painfully clear in the reading of this book that he did not object to slavery because he saw slaves as equal human beings suffering a horrific injustice but rather he objected to slavery in the same way somebody today might object to cruelty to animals He took pity on slaves but he still regarded them as lesser beings His views may have been progressive for his time but, perhaps unrealistically, I d hoped for. Commanders in the Royal Navy could not socialize with their crew They ate their meals alone then they met with the officers on board ship This took it s mental toll on the ship s Captain s and so they were allowed a civil companion someone from outside the Navy who would be under their command but was not part of the crew Captain Fitz Roy age 26 , a Nobleman and a passionate Naturalist chose Charles Darwin a wealthy, upper class Naturalist enthusiast to be his companion aboard the HMS Beagle for the five year voyage to map Patagonia and Tierra del Feugo and circumnavigate the globe.What I found most interesting about this book was how easy it is to read and enjoy It is the edited journal of Charles Darwin during his voyage on HMS Beagle, yes, but it reads like a travel channel show with Darwin as your host This is not the old, Origin of Species Darwin with his long white beard and noble, wisely appearance This is just out of college Darwin, looking for adventure He s 24 years old, he knows nothing, he wants to see everything, he is good natured, idealistic, and full of questions It s like he s on a cruise ship which happens to be a ship of war and he only has a few days at each port to party and see all the sights Naturalist gone Wild What makes the journals enjoyable is that this is not a young man who thinks he has all the answers He is aware of his inexperience and unfamiliarity with every surrounding he finds himself in and relies on interviews with others locals, magistrates, natives, scientists to fill in the blanks He is smart He accumulates facts He writes them down He expresses brief opinions He gathers facts He has adventures And here and there a light clicks on We see something start to dawn on him He doesn t put it together that will come years later but all the information he needs to formulate his later theories is here he just doesn t see it But we do And that s the fun of reading these journals watching this young man grow up on this five year voyage What makes this an extraordinary read is that we know how it ends This book is a little like watching The Sixth Sense a second time after you know the twist to watch all the clues missed the first time knowing that years later Darwin will see the twist. Fascinating glimpse on Darwin s early impressions of race, slavery, decolonization, the dichotomy of savagery and civilization, and the survival of the fittest as well as his descriptions of a wide variety of fauna and stunning natural scenery Eine lange Reise hat ihr Ende gefunden Nach der Lekt re von Das Flo der Medusa , bei dem es regelrecht abartig zuging, war ich vom gesitteten und angenehmen Klima auf der Beagle sehr angetan nat rlich wird hier die Geschichte von einem Mitglied der privilegierteren Gesellschaftsschicht erz hlt In f nf Jahren Reise verschlug es Charles Darwin in die entlegensten Winkel und Ecken der Erde, wo er sich auf alles st rzte, was im in die H nde und vor die Augen kam, um es zu beschreiben, zu vermessen, zu katalogisieren und zu sammeln Bei ber 600 Seiten werden die Beschreibungen zu Flora und Fauna, zu Gestein und Mineralien, zu Einheimische, Riten, Br uche und Sprache f r den Nicht Wissenschaftler teilweise ein bisschen m hsam zu lesen Auch gibt es ein paar Diskrepanzen, die mir immer wieder aufgefallen sind so schreibt Darwin zwar berwiegend in einem herzlichen, warmen und sympathischen Ton vor allem wenn er sich und seine Begeisterung f r ein Objekt beschreibt , und man nimmt ihm seinen Eifer und die Freude, die er am Forschen hat, auch ab Gleichzeitig kommt aber auch immer wieder diese typisch englische ber Herren Rasse Eigenschaft durch, wenn er zum Beispiel s mtliche Naturv lker und die indigene Bev lkerung von S d und Nordamerika nie anders als Wilde beschreibt, die in der Mehrzahl eine h ssliche Erscheinung abgeben, deren Sprache gr sslich klingt und die vor allem darauf aus sind, die Reisenenden entweder einen Kopf k rzer zu machen, oder sie zu bert lpeln bzw zu bestehlen An einer Stelle wird sogar ein Indianderjunge zum Preis einer Perle gekauft Gleichzeitig beschreibt er aber auch das Elend, mit dem die jeweilige Urbev lkerung von den Einwanderern drangsaliert und ausgemerzt wurde und wird Darwin beschreibt seinen Abscheu, als ein Gouverneur in einer s damerikanischen Stadt mit Begeisterung auf Indianerjagd geht und eine ganze Gruppe davon ausl scht Mit den Tieren ist es hnlich Pferde und Rinder gibt es im berfluss, deshalb werden Stuten generell geschlachtet, weil kein wahrer Mann auf einem weiblichen Pferd reitet sind dann aber die m nnlichen Pferde ersch pft oder verletzt, werden sie nicht geschont gepflegt, sondern entsorgt So geht es munter weiter, ber Stock und Stein, bis sich die Reise dem Ende n hert und man wieder die Heimat ansteuert Dieses Buch ist eine Fundgrube f r Liebhaber von Reiseliteratur, aber ab und an durch die schiere Menge an naturwissenschaftlichen Daten auch ein bisschen z h zu lesen. Per comprendere il valore di questo libro opportuno dimenticare il Darwin barbuto e severo ritratto sui frontespizi e sulle enciclopedie quando si imbarc sul Beagle aveva soltanto ventidue anni Non era autore di pubblicazioni scientifiche, non era celebre, non aveva idee rivoluzionarie era un giovane inglese orgoglioso della sua patria e della sua cultura, fervente antischiavista, innamorato della magnificenza del Messiah di H ndel con il trasporto tipico della sua et e dei libri di Alexander von Humboldt La sua formazione era stata disordinata e discontinua, in parte frenata dalla sua passione semiclandestina per le scienze naturali Non port mai a termine gli studi di medicina, e quando accett di partecipare alla spedizione del Beagle era ormai indirizzato, secondo il desiderio del padre, verso la carriera ecclesiastica Non posso fare a meno di ammirare questo periodo della sua vita cos ricco di studi, interessi e distrazioni stato meraviglioso riconoscerne le tracce nella sua scrittura.Il capitolo diciassettesimo, dedicato alle isole Galapagos, indicibilmente commovente Si tratta, com facile immaginare, di uno dei capitoli pi marcatamente scientifici eppure mai come in quelle pagine si avverte che al giovane Darwin manca letteralmente il fiato per lo stupore prova a dissimulare il suo smarrimento proponendo spiegazioni necessariamente errate, ben diverse da quella che, vent anni pi tardi, la sua ragione e il suo intuito lo porteranno a esporre nella sua opera pi celebre Non mi sognavo nemmeno che isole distanti cinquanta o sessanta miglia, a portata di vista l una dall altra, fatte della medesima roccia, sottoposte al medesimo clima, e che s innalzano quasi alla medesima altezza potessero ospitare faune e flore diverse eppure vedremo che proprio cos destino di moltissimi viaggiatori di non scoprire ci che pi interessante di una localit se non quando se ne sono allontanati in fretta, ma forse devo considerarmi fortunato per aver raccolto materiale sufficiente a stabilire questa singolarissima circostanza nella distribuzione degli esseri viventi.Immagino che Darwin scrisse quel capitolo con la mente rivolta all enigma offerto da quel luogo, pi attento all importanza della sua esperienza professionale che alla forma espressiva eppure quelle pagine sono, secondo me, tra le pi poetiche Si tratta di una qualit costante e indiscutibile di questo libro i commenti sulla natura dei luoghi visitati, le descrizioni particolareggiate di specie animali e di formazioni geologiche, gli elenchi, le digressioni racchiudono tutta la passione di Darwin per il suo lavoro.Le sue esperienze di viaggio sono pi che avvincenti attraversare i paesi dell America latina non era un impresa da poco Ricorder sempre la descrizione della confusione politica in Per , dove quattro comandanti si contendevano il governo del paese L altro giorno, per l anniversario dell indipendenza, venne celebrata una messa solenne e il presidente prendeva parte al sacramento Durante il Te Deum laudamus i reggimenti non spiegarono la bandiera peruviana, ma ne inalberarono invece una nera con un teschio.In Argentina il governo aveva affidato al generale Rosas il compito di sterminare le ultime trib di indigeni, che infastidivano i proprietari terrieri Darwin racconta diversi episodi emblematici della crudelt di questa impresa, ma ricorder soprattutto questo aneddoto, l immagine di una fuga disperatail cacicco balz su un vecchio cavallo bianco, prendendo con s il figlioletto il cavallo non aveva n sella n briglie Per sfuggire alle fucilate, l indiano cavalcava nella maniera caratteristica della sua gente, vale a dire con un braccio intorno al collo del cavallo e una gamba soltanto sul dorso Cos sospeso su un fianco del cavallo, gli carezzava la testa e gli parlava Gli inseguitori fecero ogni sforzo per raggiungerlo il comandante cambi tre volte cavallo, ma invano il vecchio indiano e il figlio fuggirono e furono liberi.Il racconto di Darwin mi ha conquistato, con le tante notti trascorse nel silenzio della pianura, i pericoli dei ghiacciai sulle Ande, i deserti i villaggi sperduti tormentati da guerre, povert , schiavismo, terremoti i fiumi inesplorati, abbandonati a malincuore per proseguire il lungo viaggio in nave la costante presenza degli indigeni, rivelata da tracce silenziose i resti di un accampamento, di un fuoco appena spento impronte di piedi nudi nel fango Ogni tappa del viaggio occasione di riflessioni sulla storia naturale, di incontri o addii e la qualit narrativa di questo libro tale che spesso ho avuto la sensazione di poter conoscere quelle persone coloni e indigeni, missionari, soldati e guerriglieri La curiosit mi ha spinto a cercare come potevo i libri citati nelle note soprattutto racconti di esploratori e di naufraghi dei secoli precedenti , a leggere la storia di quei luoghi e cosa meravigliosa, affascinante e per me del tutto nuova a informarmi sulle piante e gli animali descritti Alla sera piovve a dirotto arrivati alla casa di posta il padrone ci disse che se non avevamo un passaporto regolare dovevamo andarcene, perch i ladri erano cos numerosi che lui non si fidava di nessuno Tuttavia quando lesse il mio passaporto che cominciava El naturalista don Carlos , il suo rispetto e la sua gentilezza non ebbero limiti cos come non ne avevano avuti i sospetti di poco prima Credo che n lui n i suoi compaesani avessero idea di cosa fosse un naturalista, ma probabilmente il mio titolo non perdette per questo di valore.Il viaggio dur cinque anni poco dopo il rientro in Inghilterra, e per il resto della sua vita, Darwin fu fortemente debilitato da una malattia cronica che lo costrinse a limitare i suoi rapporti sociali Posso soltanto immaginare quale valore avesse per lui il ricordo delle sue passate fatiche, di un viaggio cos avventuroso e fortunato dal punto di vista scientifico e umano un privilegio riservato a pochi, senza dubbio Scrisse questo libro trascurando l ordine cronologico e dedicando ogni capitolo alle esperienze vissute in una particolare regione geografica, mostrando una sensibilit pi prossima agli intenti di un narratore che alle esigenze di uno scienziato Leggendo queste pagine si pu intuire la sua personalit di quegli anni intraprendente, piacevolmente ricca di contraddizioni, di pensieri diversi e liberi. The Beagle was sent on a surveying mission by the Royal Navy initially it was intended to last three years but it was extended to five and the ship circumnavigated the globe The captain, Fitzroy, wanted a companion on the voyage and through a convoluted series of events, ended up with a youthful Darwin along, which so annoyed the official ship s Naturalist who was also the surgeon as was common , that he resigned and left at the first port of call, part way across the Atlantic Fortunately another surgeon was appointed at the same port Very little of what Darwin wrote actually talks about the oceansthis is because he was no great sailor and spent most of his time aboard acutely seasick Which, in turn, is why Darwin contrived to spend three out of five years on land All this and is discussed in an excellent introduction to this edition, which has printed the 1st edition, abridging Darwin s journal by approx 1 3, however I m not sure how to feel about that have I been saved from really dull stuff that would have made what is a pretty lively book a chore to read Or have I missed out on some interesting material Weirdly, having made this 1 3 chop, the original Naval orders for the mission are included along with Fitzroy s essay attempting to reconcile the Bible specifically the Deluge i.e the Noah story with contemporary geology Even weirdly both of these appendices are worthwhile The mission orders are very practical and sensible and as specific as practicable and not, as I imagined they would be, vague and bureaucratic.Fitzroy s essay reminded me of the kind of thing that went on in Oxford and Cambridge in the Middle Ages, where people devoted themselves primarily to attempting to reconcile reality with the Classical philosophers and the Bible, deploying a lot of casuistry and not much else for the most part Roger Bacon being a notable exception and look what happened to him yep, locked up by he Church for practising black magic The fact is that even at the time of Beagle s voyage, it was clear that the Earth had to be orders of magnitude older than the historical record with Genesis taken at face value suggested and literal belief in the Bible, particularly the Old Testament, was crumbling amongst the educated scientists Christianity itself was still axiomatic for most, however and Darwin no exception at the time as cannot be mistaken from this book.Getting back to Darwin and his book, the Voyage is a rarely dull, often vivacious account not only of the flora and fauna Darwin encounters but also of the geology, people and societies he encounters, too, the latter providing most of the funny and dramatic moments, of which there are many I cannot recommend it to people uninterested in geology and biology, however Readers who cannot cope with such entries as a detailed theory of the formation of coral reefs still considered correct as far as it goes, I believe will get bogged down quite often That said, anyone who has successfully waded through The Origin of Species will find this an easy ride by comparison.Darwin displays an interesting blend of progressive attitudes e.g anti slavery and typical of his day Victorian Christian notions e.g Christian Western Europe is the pinnacle of human societies whilst observing on the many different nations and cultures he encounters alongside the wildlife and geology Apparently the people of Tierra Del Feugo are the least improved on the planet.What you won t find here is a theory of evolution, the question of the origin of species arising only a few times and then very obliquely and in passing.In conclusion, nowhere near as important as Origin of Species but much fun to read.